Hans Schamel

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Curriculum Vitae

Curriculum Vitae  -  Biographical Information and Research Interests of  Hans Schamel

Hans Schamel received his doctorate in physics in 1970 from the  Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
in Germany with a theoretical investigation of self-consistent, shock-like structures in collisionless plasmas.
From 1969-1974 he was employed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik and Astrophysik in München
and worked as a research scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA in 1974-1975.
In 1975 he joined the Ruhr-Universität in Bochum, Germany, as an Assistant Professor, where he received
the Habilitation degree in Theoretical Physics in 1978 and was appointed extra-ordinary professor in 1984.
After a half-year employment at JET, the European Nuclear Fusion Center in Culham, England in 1986 he
was appointed as professor for Theoretical Physics at the Universität Bayreuth, Germany, from which he
retired in 2004.
Hans Schamel's theoretical research work is in the physics of plasmas, particle accelerators and fluid dynamics
with focus on structure formation, transport and turbulence. Some highlights of his investigations are

  1. Laser-plasma interaction [1]
  2. plasma expansion into vacuum [2,3]
  3. cross-field transport [4]
  4. ponderomotive effects [5]
  5. solitary waves on coasting beams in synchrotrons [6]
  6. phase space holes & intermittent plasma turbulence [7-15]
  7. nonlinear nature of electrostatic shielding [16]
  8. diode dynamics [17-19]
  9. magnetosonic wave collapse [20]
  10. Coulomb relaxation of anisotropic distributions [21]


[1] Ch. Sack and H. Schamel, SUNION - An Algorithm for One-dimensional Laser-Plasma Interaction,
  J. Comp. Phys. 53(1984)395-428.
[2] Ch. Sack and H. Schamel, Plasma expansion into vacuum - a hydrodynamic approach,
  Phys. Reports 156(1987)311-395.
[3] Hans Schamel, Lagrangian fluid description with simple applications in compressible plasma and gas dynamics,
  Phys. Reports 392(2004)279-319.
[4] G. Hübner and H. Schamel, Enhanced cross-field transport in cylindrical, anisotropic magneto-plasmas in
  the very long mean-field-path regime,
  Transport Theory and Stat. Phys. 23(1994)971-1000.
[5] U. Wolf and H. Schamel, Wake-field generation by the ponderomotive memory effect,
  Phys. Rev.E 56(1997)4656-4664.
[6] Hans Schamel, Theory of Solitary Holes in Coasting Beams,
  Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(1997)2811-2814.
[7] Hans Schamel, Stationary Solitary, Snoidal and Sinusoidal Ion Acoustic Waves,
  Plasma Phys. 14(1972)905-924.
[8] Hans Schamel, Theory of Electron Holes,
  Physica Scripta. 20(1979)336-342.
[9] H. Schamel and S. Bujarbarua, Theory of finite-amplitude electron and ion holes,
  J. Plasma Phys. 25(1981)515-529.
[10] H. Schamel and S. Bujarbarua, Analytical double layers,
  Phys. Fluids 26(1983)190- 193.
[11] Hans Schamel, Kinetic Theory of Phase Space Vortices and Double layers,
  Physica Scripta. Vol. T2/1(1982)228-237.
[12] Hans Schamel, Electron holes, ion holes and double layers,
  Phys. Reports 140(1986)161-191.
[13] J. Korn and H. Schamel, Electron holes and their role in the dynamics of current-carrying weakly collisional plasmas
  Part 1. Immobile ions, Part 2. Mobile ions,
  J. Plasma Phys. 56(1996)307-337, 339-359. 
[14] Hans Schamel, Hole equilibria in Vlasov-Poisson systems: A challenge to wave theories of ideal plasmas,
  Phys. Plasmas 7(2000)4831-4844.
[15] A. Luque and H. Schamel, Electrostatic trapping as a key to the dynamics of plasmas, fluids and other collective systems,
  Phys. Reports 415(2005)261-359.
[16] N. Das and H. Schamel, Nonlinear shielding of planar test charge in one-dimensionalVlasov-Poisson plasmas,
  J. Plasma Phys. 71(2005) 769-784.
[17] A. Ya. Ender, H. Kolinsky, V. I. Kuznetsov, and H. Schamel, Collective diode dynamics: an analytical approach,
  Phys. Reports 328(2000)1-72.
[18] P. V. Akimov and H. Schamel, Space-charge-limited current in electron diodes under the influence of collisions,
  J. Appl. Phys  92(2002)1690-1698.
[19] P. V. Akimov, H. Schamel, A. Ya. Ender, and V. I. Kuznetsov, Switching as a dynamical process in electron diodes,
  J. Appl. Phys  93(2003)1246-1256.
[20] N. Chakrabarti, C. Maity, and H. Schamel, Non-stationary Magnetosonic Wave Dynamics in Plasmas Exhibiting
  Phys. Rev. E 88(2013)023102.
[21] H. Schamel, H. Hamnén, D. F. Düchs, and T. E. Stringer, Nonlinear analysis of Coulomb relaxation of anisotropic distributions,
  Phys. Fluids B 1(1989)76-86.


[R1] Hans Schamel, Cnoidal electron hole propagation: Trapping, the forgotten nonlinearity in plasma and fluid dynamics,
  Phys. Plasmas 19(2012)020501
[R2] Hans Schamel, Particle trapping:A key requisite of structure formation and stability of Vlasov-Poisson plasmas,
  Phys. Plasmas 22(2015)042301
[R3] Hans Schamel, Debraj Mandal, and Devendra Sharma, On the nonlinear trapping nature of undamped, coherent structures
  in collisionless plasmas and its impact on stability,
  Phys. Plasmas 24(2017)032109
[R4] Debraj Mandal, Devendra Sharma, and Hans Schamel, Electron holes instability as a primordial step towards sustained
  intermittent turbulence in linearly subcritical plasmas,
  New J. Phys. 20(2018)073004
[R5] H. Schamel, D. Mandal, and D. Sharma, Evidence of a new class of cnoidal electron holes exhibiting intrinsic
  substructures, its impact on linear (and nonlinear) Vlasov theories and role in anomalous transport,
  Phys. Scr. 95(2020)055601
[R6] H. Schamel, D. Mandal, and D. Sharma, Diversity of solitary electron holes operating with non-perturbative trapping,
  Phys. Plasmas 27(2020)062302
[R7] H. Schamel, Novel electron holes of Gaussian type due to second order, non-perturbative trapping and the general loss of identifiability of hole structures in experiments,
  Phys. Lett. A 384(2020)126752
[R8] H. Schamel, Two-Parametric, Mathematically Undisclosed Solitary Electron Holes and Their Evolution equation,
  Plasma 3(2020)166
[R9] H. Schamel, Pattern formation in Vlasov-Poisson plasmas beyond Landau caused by the continuous spectra of
  electron and ion hole equilibria,
  arXiv:2110.01433v2 [physics.plasm-ph]


Please select one of the subtitles

Plasma Expansion into Vacuum - the spiky fast ion front

Plasma Expansion into Vacuum and the Spiky Fast Ion Front

  ~ intense laser irradiation of matter and atomic clusters[1-3]
  ~ plasma based acceleration of  ions [1-3]
  ~ matter generation in the early phase of our expanding universe [3]

  [1] Ch.Sack and H.Schamel,  Sunion - an algorithm for one-dimensional
  laser-plasma interaction, J. Comp. Phys. 53(1984)395-428
  [2] Ch.Sack and H.Schamel, Plasma expansion into vacuum -
  a hydrodynamic approach, Phys. Reports 156(1987)311-395
  [3] H.Schamel, Lagrangian fluid description with simple applications in
  compressible plasma and gas dynamics,
  Phys.Reports 392(2004)279 - 319  and references therein

  ~ cold ion fluid equations without and with Navier-Stokes viscosity term
  ~ polytropic electron equation of state
  ~ Poisson's equation
  at t=0: semi-infinite plasma with a step-like, but continuous ion density

  a) inviscid case
  ~ discovery of ion density collapse in the laser-plasma interaction [1]
  ~ explanation of density collapse during plasma expansion as an ion
  wave breaking phenomenon resulting from wave steepening  [2,3] 
  Keywords: simple wave analysis, derivation and solution of  nonlinear
  scalar wave equation in Lagrangian fluid description-> Sack-Schamel equation:
  (see also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sack-Schamel equation)
  V = 1 / n , the specific volume.
  b) viscid case
  to allow long term simulations:  inclusion of an ion viscosity term
 accounting for anomalous plasma transport
 (keywords: plasma turbulence due to multiple ion streaming after the
  collapse event, coarse-grained  ion Vlasov distribution function)
  ~ supersonic propagation of a peaked ion density front, the peak
 being a remnant of  the density collapse [2,3]
  ~ essentially 3 phases of evolution can be distinguished :
  i) initial phase up to ion density bunching
  ii) a stable peaked ion density front propagating with constant
  velocity supersonically towards vacuum
  iii) decay of the leading density hump due to debunching and
  further acceleration of the resultant tiny ion front up to a
  value determined by self-similar theory [2,3] 

  ~ exact numerical treatment of ion dynamics by a Lagrangian code [1,2]
  ~ need for a Poisson solver of high resolution and fast convergence of
  the iteration procedure [1,2]
  ~ tri-diagonal coefficient matrix for the discretized evolution equations
  with open (i.e. differential) boundary conditions [1,2]

Plasma Expansion into Vacuum - trapped electron effects

Ponderomotive Memory Effect and the Laser Wake-Field Generation

Ponderomotive Memory Effect and the Laser Wake-Field Generation

  ~laser-plasma (matter) interaction by laser pulses
  ~laser wake-field generation and acceleration of charged particles
  ~wave heating of plasmas

The fast-time-averaged electron distribution function as a solution of the kinetic diffusion
equation in the presence of a hf electric wave field is found to be given by

E(x, t) representing the slowly varying electric field envelope such as a hump localized in x and t.
Three ponderomotive effects can be distinguished:

  1. cavity formation by pp in the exponential,
  2. fake heating by pp in the denominator of the argument in the exponential, and
  3. wake field generation by pmt manifested by the emission of streamers, jets and heatfluxes.

Notice that the latter effect weakens cavity formation.

Space-time plot of ponderomotive potential (assumed):


Space-time plot of ponderomotive density (derived):


  [1] H.Schamel, Ponderomotive Effects in a Plasma, Phys.Rev.Lett. 42 (1979) 1339-1341

  [2] H.Schamel and Ch.Sack, Existence of a time-dependent heat flux-related 
  ponderomotive effect, Phys.Fluids 23 (1980) 1532-1545

  [3] H.Schamel and Ch.Sack, A new  ponderomotive  effect in wave heating,
  Proc.2nd  Joint Grenoble-Varenna Int.Symp.on Heating in Toroidal Plasmas,
  Como 1980, Vol.II  1123-1128 ,
  published by Commission of the European Communities EUR 7424 EN 
  [4] U.Wolf and H.Schamel, Wake-field generation by the ponderomotive 
  memory effect, Phys.Rev.E 56 (1997) 4656-4664

Cnoidal Electron Holes - short version


Cnoidal Electron Holes - long version (review)

Magnetoacoustic Wave Collapse - Phys.Rev.Lett.

Magnetoacoustic Wave Collapse - A second proof

Failure of Landau theory

The article "Particle Trapping: A key requisite of structure formation and stability of Vlasov-Poisson plasmas", Phys. Plasmas 22, 042301 (2015), shows the failure of Landau's linear wave theory in describing the formation of coherent structures and with it the onset of instability of realistic Vlasov-Poisson (VP) plasmas.

The reason of failure in two lines:
Coherent equilibria of VP plasmas necessarily imply trapping and hence exclude van Kampen modes, which on the other hand are a central issue for linear Landau solutions.

For more details see

Intermittent Plasma Turbulence

A key issue in electrostatically driven intermittent plasma turbulence is particle trapping, which is associated with its patches of coherency in electron and ion phase space. The most plausible description of these coherent substructures is thereby provided by the spectrum of  Privileged Cnoidal Electron & Ion Holes, which are non-BGK equilibrium solutions of the governing Vlasov-Poisson system. These modes, being extinguished by smooth (i.e. regular) trapped particle distributions, are challenging standard wave theory by superseding Landau's linear wave approach (e.g. with respect to the onset of structure formation).
This underlying nonlinear picture of structure formation is further strengthened by the following new publications in 2018, 2019, 2020:


Further topics are coming soon. Some papers you will find here:
http: www.google.de="" search?source="ig&hl=de&q=H.+Schamel%2C+Phys.+Rev.+Lett.+&btnG=Google-Suche&meta="




Prof. Dr. Hans Schamel